Biology (BIO)

BIO-105:  Human Anatomy & Physiology I  (4 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-105L is required.  

A systematic study of the gross and microscopic anatomy of the human body and the function of its parts are explored in this course. Laboratory work includes dissections, microscopic examinations of structures and experiments in physiology. This sequence is for those in nursing. It is not appropriate, in and of itself, for those considering professional schools or graduate school in anatomy, physiology or development.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Engaging Creative, Aesthetic and Spiritual Experience.  
Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-105L:  Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-105 is required.  

This course consists of laboratory exercises to give the students experience with anatomical terminology and structure and function of components of the human body. The laboratory portion of the course complements and reinforces the lecture through the use of additional resources, focusing on closer examination of the body's components.

BIO-106:  Human Anatomy and Physiology II  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-105 is required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-106L is required.  

A systematic study of the gross and microscopic anatomy of the human body and the function of its parts are explored in this course. Laboratory work includes dissections, microscopic examinations of structures and experiments in physiology. This sequence is for those in nursing. It is not appropriate, in and of itself, for those considering professional schools or graduate school in anatomy, physiology or development.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Engaging Creative, Aesthetic and Spiritual Experience.  
Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-106L:  Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-106 is required.  

This course consists of laboratory exercises to give the students experience with fundamental biochemistry and structure and function of components of the human body. The laboratory portion of the course complements and reinforces the lecture through the use of additional resources, focusing on closer examination of the body's components.

BIO-110:  Human Biology: Physiology and Health  (3 Credits)  

This course is a concept-oriented study of the interrelationships and variations in the physiological processes in health, disease, heredity and sexuality that can be applied to real-life situations. Students will be given opportunities to read and critically analyze many of the new and challenging developments in human biology, along with the moral and ethical choices, responsibilities and dilemmas that inevitably accompany them.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Engaging Creative, Aesthetic and Spiritual Experience.  
BIO-110L:  Human Biology: Physiology and Health Lab  (1 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-110 is required.  

The laboratory taken with BIO-110 will fulfill the core requirement in science and will consist of student-performed and sometimes student-designed experiments following the scientific method. The lab coordinates with the concepts covered in the lecture: biochemistry of the body, cellular organization, genetics, anatomy and physiology of the human body, all related to the idea of human health. Students will learn hypothesis testing, statistics, graphing and analysis of individual and group data sets. Also included will be practice in scientific communication.

BIO-111:  General Biology I  (4 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-111L is required.  

This course introduces fundamental concepts in ecology and evolution, relationships within populations and communities in the biosphere. Laboratory exercises include the use of natural richness of the school's island geography and in-lab simulations. Ethical concerns related to resources and their care and distribution are discussed.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Engaging Creative, Aesthetic and Spiritual Experience.  
Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-111L:  General Biology I Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-111 is required.  

Laboratory course in general biology intended for science majors. Laboratory exercises include the use of natural richness of the school's island geography and in-lab simulations. Ethical concerns related to resources and their care and distribution are discussed.

BIO-112:  General Biology II  (4 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-112L is required  

Foundational concepts in comparative anatomy of plants and animals, their physiology and adaptations are considered. Cell structure, biochemistry, and molecular biology are highlighted. Lab includes wet experiment, dissection and simulations.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Engaging Creative, Aesthetic and Spiritual Experience.  
Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-112L:  General Biology II Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-112 is required.  

Laboratory course in general biology intended for science majors. Topics include the application of the scientific method, examination of cellular processes (e.g., respiration, photosynthesis, mitosis, meiosis), Mendelian genetics, operation of basic laboratory equipment, and investigations of structure and function of plants and animals.

BIO-140:  Humans and their Environment  (3 Credits)  

This course considers the interdependence and tension between humans and their environment. Discussions of contemporary, social, economic, and ecological concerns such as population growth, world hunger, pollution and resource utilization attempt to provide the student with the general background necessary for consideration of environmental ethics. The student will then critically evaluate and analyze the moral choices involved in such environmental dilemmas as intergenerational equity, the needs of developing countries versus the needs of industrialized nations, individual needs and rights versus the good of both the local and global communities.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Building Global Awareness.  
BIO-140L:  Humans and their Environment Lab  (1 Credits)  
Pre/Co-requisite(s): BIO-140 is required.  

This course consists of laboratory exercises to give the students experience with the scientific method, measurement, computation, quantification, statistical analysis, and lab report writing. These include topics such as osmotic gradients, analysis of temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, population demographics, water, air and soil quality, toxicology and behavioral ecology.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-190:  Nutrition  (3 Credits)  

This course presents a survey of nutrition. Various nutrients and their relationship to human growth and development will be analyzed. Both the benefits and the safety problems associated with the rapid changes in the technology of food science will be assessed along with hunger as serious global, moral, and ethical concerns.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Building Global Awareness.  
Course Fee:  $60.00  
BIO-200:  Botany  (4 Credits)  
Pre/Co-requisite(s): BIO-200L is required.  

This is an introductory course with laboratory emphasizing the continuous interaction of living plants with the environment by examining the structures and functions of cells, tissues and organs of both terrestrial and marine plants and algae. Special emphasis will be placed on ecology, particularly the role of plants in the biosphere, and on appropriate environmental issues. Additionally, this class examines through laboratories and hands-on work in our greenhouse how environmental factors affect plant growth and survival.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-200L:  Botany Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-200 is required.  

This laboratory emphasizes the continuous interaction of living plants with the environment by examining the structures and functions of cells, tissues and organs of both terrestrial and marine plants and algae. This class examines how environmental factors affect plant growth and survival through hands-on work in our greenhouse.

BIO-207:  Microbiology of Health and Disease  (4 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-207L is required.  

This course is designed for students interested in pursuing a Nursing degree. Emphasis is on microorganisms in health and disease. Structure physiology and genetics of viruses, bacteria and fungi are discussed as well as non-parasitic relationships, immune responses and treatment and prevention of disease. Laboratory component includes the cultivation, biochemical differentiation, control and diagnosis of microorganisms. Nursing majors only.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-207L:  Microbiology of Health and Disease Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-207 is required.  

This course is designed for students interested in pursuing a Nursing degree. Laboratory component includes the cultivation, biochemical differentiation, control and diagnosis of microorganisms.

BIO-210:  Microbiology  (4 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-210L is required.  

This introductory course is a foundational, yet comprehensive overview of microbiology. The principles of morphological structure, physiology and genetics of viruses, bacteria and fungi are discussed. Upon completion of this course the student will have a good understanding of the nature of host-parasite interactions in infectious diseases, host defense mechanisms, the control of microbial populations, and the diagnosis of human disease. Laboratory work includes the cultivation, biochemical differentiation, control and diagnosis of microorganisms.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-210L:  Microbiology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-210 is required.  

This introductory course is a foundational, yet comprehensive overview of microbiology. Laboratory work includes the cultivation, biochemical differentiation, control and diagnosis of microorganisms.

BIO-220:  Cell Biology and Chemistry  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-112 or BIO-105 and BIO-106 or permission of department chair are required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-220L is required.  

A comprehensive comparison of the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their components are examined in detail at the cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. The molecular mechanisms of cell growth and survival, metabolism and cell-cell interactions are presented in both the normal state (development, species preservation) and in the abnormal state (cancer, genetic diseases). The fundamentals of cellular chemistry and the chemical properties of biologically important macromolecules are emphasized. Laboratory experiments are designed to introduce the current concepts and techniques in molecular biology, biochemistry and cell biology as a means to study cellular structure and function.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Engaging Creative, Aesthetic and Spiritual Experience.  
Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-220L:  Cell Biology and Chemistry Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-220 is required.  

A comprehensive comparison of the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their components are examined in detail at the cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. Laboratory experiments are designed to introduce the current concepts and techniques in molecular biology, biochemistry and cell biology as a means to study cellular structure and function.

BIO-230:  Biotechnology  (3 Credits)  

An introduction to recent developments in basic biological research that are improving technologies for producing food, medicines, clinical diagnostic procedures, and a vast array of other biochemicals that extend and improve modern life. The course discusses the basic principles of genetics, applied microbiology, agribusiness and industrial biotechnology. Also considered are governmental policies regarding the development and regulation of biotechnology research. Students will then analyze and evaluate the moral and ethical choices and dilemmas of this rapidly evolving technology and its global effects.

BIO-232:  Bioinformatics  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-110 or BIO-112 is required.  

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary dimension of biotechnology that merges the development of computer technology application with molecular biology. This introductory level course will combine the fundamental information required to understand the basic DNA-protein and molecular biology concepts with the computer applications that will enable the student to annotate, manipulate and interpret such databases.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
BIO-235:  Biotechniques  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 or permission of department chair is required.  

This laboratory course covers the theory and practice of commonly used laboratory techniques in modern biology. Students will acquire skills in recombinant DNA technologies, gene manipulation, cloning, cell culture, and gene transfer, as well as protein expression, protein purification and characterization. Techniques in electrophysiology, anatomical tracing and surgery will be included on an alternating basis. The course emphasizes laboratory skills for entry-level employment in biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical laboratories.

Course Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-250:  Kinesiology  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-111 and BIO-112 or BIO-105 and BIO-106 are required.  

This course presents an introduction to the discipline of kinesiology, the study of human biomechanics. Emphasis will be on examination of muscle movement and physiology from an integrated function, health and disease perspective.

BIO-253:  Genetics: Classical, Molecular and Population  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-112 is required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-253L is required.  

This course includes topics on the structure and synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein. The gene theory, various methods by which genes are expressed or repressed, structural changes in the chromosomes and their effects, elementary Mendelian mechanism and its modification and the genetics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are emphasized. Laboratory emphasizes both classical and modern laboratory techniques.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Engaging Creative, Aesthetic and Spiritual Experience.  
Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-253L:  Genetics Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-253 is required.  

This course includes topics on the structure and synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein. Laboratory emphasizes both classical and modern laboratory techniques.

BIO-255:  Conservation Biology  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-140 or BIO-111 is required.  

Conservation Biology is the integrated science of diversity and scarcity developed to face the challenge of stemming the current rate of extinction. Students will be introduced to the discipline in three key areas: understanding patterns of global biodiversity, investigating the human influence on biological species, populations, communities and ecosystems, and to gain a basic understanding of the practical approaches to prevent extinction, maintain genetic variation, and protect and restore biological communities.

Course Fee:  $60.00  
BIO-260:  Marine Biology  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-140 and BIO-140L or BIO-111 and BIO-112 are required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-260L is required.  

Estuarine, coastal and marine environments and their organisms that inhabit these environments are studied in this course. The technology needed to monitor and maintain marine ecosystems is practiced in the lab and the field.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-260L:  Marine Biology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-260 is required.  

The laboratory examines the estuarine, coastal and marine environments and the organisms that inhabit these environments. The laboratory focuses on the technology and techniques needed to monitor and maintain marine ecosystems and how it is practiced in the field.

BIO-275:  Tropical Biology  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-111 or BIO-140 and BIO-140L are required. Must be a biology or environmental studies major or minor.  

An introduction to terrestrial and marine biomes of tropical latitudes, biodiversity of Neotropical wildlife and fisheries of the Caribbean, human ecology in Central America, and coral reef, mangrove and tropical forest ecology. Tropical biology offers students the exciting opportunity to study first-hand the evolutionary ecology of important plant and animal taxa in tropical ecosystems. Course design emphasizes intensive field exploration of tropical ecosystems on land and sea in Belize, Central America, where students are introduced to a great diversity of tropical habitats, each possessing distinctive biotas that in turn demonstrate unique evolutionary histories and ecological dynamics. The course and field exploration emphasizes the human dimensions of tropical systems and the principles of conservation biology.

Fulfills Core Requirement in Natural Sciences.  
Theme: Building Global Awareness.  
BIO-280:  Comparative Anatomy  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-111 and BIO-112 or BIO-105 and BIO-106 are required.  

The goal of this course is to understand the origin and evolution of vertebrate anatomy and gain an appreciation of anatomical innovations in vertebrates. We will discuss patterns, causes and consequences of anatomical change in regard to molecular and physiological levels through the "big picture" implications in terms of species diversification. Topics covered in this course include embryonic development, molecular underpinnings of anatomical structure, the fossil record, aspects of physiology, and most importantly, innovations and patterns of major organ systems. We will touch on human anatomical evolution, but that limited subject is not the focus of this course. Skills that you will develop include: the ability to discuss anatomical traits in light of function and evolutionary context, proficiency in dissection, the ability to identify major structures, organs, and details of anatomy, and an appreciation for the complexity present in groups far more diverse and evolutionarily relevant than humans.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-280L:  Comparative Anatomy Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-280 is required.  

This laboratory course will develop skills to understand anatomical traits in light of function and evolutionary context, proficiency in dissection, the ability to identify major structures, organs, and details of anatomy, and an appreciation for the complexity present in groups far more diverse and evolutionarily relevant than humans.

BIO-284:  Hormones & Behavior  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-110 and PSY-100, or Biology major/minor or Neuroscience minor, sophomore or higher academic standing are required.  

Hormones and Behavior is a one-semester introduction to the field of behavioral endocrinology. As such, it is enormously broad in scope, encompassing psychology, cell biology, biochemistry and neurobiology. The action of hormones in the body and their interactions with internal and external forces influence animal and human behavior. Topics addressed in this course are cellular mechanisms of hormone action, metabolism, stress, sexual differentiation and sexual development, gender identity, hunger, thirst, aggression, affiliation, mating behavior and learning and memory.

BIO-305:  Human Anatomy  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 is required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-305L is required.  

Human Anatomy is a four-credit lecture/lab course for juniors and seniors. Students will study the anatomy of the human body on the microscopic, tissue and organ level. Clinical cases involving changes in anatomy and the pathologies that lead from them will be included. The lab includes study of cells and tissues, the dissection of organs and tissues from mammalian specimens and includes a field trip to a human dissection laboratory. The course is designed to offer the student the fundamentals of human anatomy for future graduate health professions or medical study.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-305L:  Human Anatomy Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-305 is required.  

This laboratory course includes study of cells and tissues, the dissection of organs and tissues from mammalian specimens and includes a field trip to a human dissection laboratory.

BIO-310:  Ecology  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-111 or BIO-140 and BIO-140L and permission of department chair are required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-310L is required.  

This course examines the concepts of the ecosystem, populations, communities, the flows of energy, material cycles, and the necessity of diversity. Concepts including the unity of organisms and inseparable interactions with the physical environment are analyzed. Class discussions include topics such as the formation, distribution, and organization of ecological communities; plant succession and nutrient cycling; evolutionary trends of plant and animal populations.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-310L:  Ecology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-310 is required.  

This course examines the concepts of the ecosystem, populations, communities, the flows of energy, material cycles, and the necessity of diversity. Laboratory topics such as the formation, distribution, and organization of ecological communities; plant succession and nutrient cycling; evolutionary trends of plant and animal populations are examined.

BIO-320:  Evolution  (3 Credits)  
Pre/Co-requisite(s): BIO-111 and BIO-112 are required; BIO-253 must be complete or taken concurrently.  

The goal of this course is to provide students with an intellectual understanding of the principles of evolution, an appreciation of the historical processes leading to the development of the theory, and a sense of the scientific debate and controversy regarding the operation of evolutionary processes. The course will cover the history of evolutionary thought from Aristotle to the present. Emphasis will be placed on the cultural, religious, and philosophical atmosphere in Europe at the time Darwin was writing and publishing Origin of Species. The social and scientific ramifications of Darwinian theory will be presented. The course will include macroevolution, microevolution, and sexual selection.

BIO-325:  Human Physiology  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 is required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-325L is required.  

Human Physiology, a four-credit lecture/lab course for junior and seniors, explores the normal functioning of the human body. It encompasses the molecular and cellular processes that maintain homeostasis under a broad range of conditions. Using the disciplines of neuroscience, anatomy, chemistry, physics and mathematics, each organ system and its role will be detailed. As this course is designed for future health care professionals and graduate students in Biology, examples in health and medicine will be used to illustrate all major concepts. The lab will consist of experiments using both animal and humans and will represent physiology in all levels of body organization from the molecular to the whole organism.

BIO-325L:  Human Physiology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-325 is required.  

This laboratory course includes experiments using both animal and humans and will represent physiology in all levels of body organization from the molecular to the whole organism.

BIO-330:  Pathogenic Microorganisms  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-210 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-330L is required.  

The epidemiology of specific diseases of rickettsiae and bacteria are used to introduce the different concepts of pathogenicity. Mechanisms of bacterial virulence and host defenses are examined to demonstrate the delicate balance in host-parasite relationships. The laboratory is based upon the isolation and identification of animal and human pathogens.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-330L:  Pathogenic Microorganisms Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-330 is required.  

This laboratory examines the epidemiology of specific diseases to introduce the different concepts of pathogenicity with a focus on the isolation and identification of animal and human pathogens.

BIO-340:  Parasitology  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-210 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

The basic properties of parasites are examined in detail. The life cycle and morphology of specific human, animal and plant parasitic organisms are discussed. This information serves as the basis for analyzing the clinical disease, and for discussing the diagnosis, treatment, control, epidemiology and prevention of parasitic infections.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-340L:  Parasitology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-340 is required.  

The laboratory examines the basic properties of how parasites are examined and the ramifications of parasitic infections, including clinical disease, diagnosis, treatment, control, epidemiology and prevention.

BIO-350:  Mycology  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 and BIO-253 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

The structure, life cycles and classification of the fungi are presented. The role which fungi play in causing allergies in man and as pathogens of plants and animals will be discussed.

Course Fee:  $60.00  
BIO-360:  Animal Physiology  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-360L is required.  

This advanced physiology course, designed for students interested in human or animal medicine, other professional health programs and graduate school in physiology, anatomy or development, draws heavily upon knowledge gained in earlier courses to understand the aspects of organismal function unique to mammals, particularly humans. It attempts to integrate processes, from the molecular level to the whole animal, in order to gain an understanding of homeostasis. The laboratories emphasize hands-on learning and experiences with live animals.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-360L:  Animal Physiology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-360 is required.  

This laboratory course attempts to integrate processes, from the molecular level to the whole animal, in order to gain an understanding of homeostasis. The laboratories emphasize hands-on learning and experiences with animals.

BIO-370:  Molecular Biology  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-253 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

This course provides an introduction to the basics of the molecular processes and genetics of the cell. Particular emphasis will be given to DNA synthesis, DNA repair, protein synthesis and structure, development, differentiation and regulation of gene activity.

BIO-390:  Environmental Science Internship  (3-4 Credits)  

A supervised work experience in areas of environmental science such as wildlife management, water resources, sewer treatment systems, salt marsh monitoring and restoration, environmental education or natural resource management are available. Students are expected to review the literature on the chosen internship project and to make formal oral and written presentation of the internship experience. Permission of the department chair is required.

Course Fee:  $60.00  
BIO-391:  Biology Internship  (3 Credits)  

A supervised work experience in an area of biomedical science, including, but not exclusive to, clinical laboratory work, close work with a medical, dental or veterinary professional, forms of patient care in hospitals and health clinics, or work with health care NGOs. Students are expected to review the literature on the chosen internship project and to make formal oral and written presentations of the internship experience. Permission of instructor or department chair is required.

BIO-399:  Special Topics  (3-4 Credits)  

This course investigates topics of current interest in the field of Biology and Biomedical Sciences. The topics to be covered and the focus of the course will be specified at the time of registration. This course may be repeated for different topics. 200 level biology course, or as indicated at the time of offering is required.

Course Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-399L:  Special Topics: Biology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-399 is required.  

This a laboratory course investigates topics of current interest in the field of Biology and Biomedical Sciences. The topics to be covered and the focus of the course will be specified at the time of registration.

BIO-410:  The Biology of Cancer  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 or BIO-253 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

The emphasis of this course is a study of the biological effects of radiation and other toxins both natural and man-made on the normal cell. Cell processes thought to be involved in transforming the normal cell to a cancerous cell will be explored.

BIO-420:  Immunology  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

A study of the cellular and humoral interaction involved in the response of the host to antigenic stimulation. Special emphasis is given to bursal and thymic influence on lymphoid cells, immune mechanisms in viral diseases, vaccines, autoimmune disorders and immunochemistry.

BIO-425:  Neuroscience  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field encompassing cell biology and physiology, biochemistry, physics and psychology. As such, it is considered to be an integrative science of brain, body and emotion. The anatomical features of the nervous system and the principle molecular and physiological events that govern neuronal communication are the foundations of the course. These fundamentals will be used to introduce students to system level concepts, such as neural development, sensory and motor control, learning and conditioning behavior and memory.

BIO-426:  Experiments in Neuroscience  (1 Credits)  
Pre/Co-requisite(s): BIO-425 or concurrent enrollment, junior/senior academic standing are required.  

This laboratory course correlates with BIO-425: Neuroscience. It may be taken with BIO-425 or following it. The lab will cover anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and neuro- biological modeling techniques used to study the nervous system and the brain. This course will emphasize learning basic neuroscience laboratory techniques using living, non-vertebrate animals. The students will also practice designing research experiments and taking them through the grant approval process.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-435:  Developmental Biology  (4 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 or BIO-253 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  
Co-requisite(s): BIO-435L is required.  

This course will study the procedures by which organisms grow and develop. Specifically, the course will focus on control of cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis in animal and plant systems at the morphological, genetic, cellular and whole organism levels.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-435L:  Developmental Biology Lab  (0 Credits)  
Pre/Co-requisite(s): BIO-435 is required.  

Lab for Developmental Biology.

BIO-450:  Pathophysiology  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-220 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

This course presents an in-depth study of the present theories of what constitutes the normal cell, the adapted cell, the injured cell and the dead cell. The exogenous and endogenous environmental stresses that exceed the adaptive capabilities of the cells are examined. Their injury at the cellular level is related to diseases of the individual organs and to the effects these diseases have on the body as a whole.

BIO-460:  Virology  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-210, BIO-220 and junior/senior academic standing are required.  

The basic properties of viruses are examined in depth. This information serves as the basis for analyzing the mechanisms by which viruses interact with humans, animals, plants or bacteria to produce disease. The use of viruses as tools for studies in genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology are also presented. Viruses are considered in two parallel ways, as very interesting organisms and as agents of disease.

BIO-471:  Biology Seminar  (3 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): One 300-level biology course is required.  

This course provides an opportunity for students to make formal written and oral presentations of in-depth areas of current biological and biomedical research literature. Class discussions include recent developments in the biological sciences including the ethical considerations of those developments. In addition, the student will review the history and philosophy of science.

BIO-471L:  Biology Seminar Lab  (0 Credits)  
Pre/Co-requisite(s): BIO-471 is required.  
BIO-497:  Undergraduate Research  (1-6 Credits)  

In-depth laboratory investigation of a specific topic in biology. Topic and credit to be determined by the faculty member who is acting as research advisor. Permission of instructor is required.

Course Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-498:  Undergraduate Research II  (1-6 Credits)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO-497 and permission of instructor is required.  

A continuation of BIO-497. Advanced in-depth analysis investigation of a specific topic in biology. Topic and credit to be determined by faculty member who is acting as the research advisor.

Lab Fee:  $150.00  
BIO-499:  Independent Study  (2-4 Credits)  

Supervised study in an area not available in a regularly scheduled course. Proposal must be approved by the department chair. Biology majors and minors only.