2017-18 Graduate Catalog 
    
    Sep 22, 2018  
2017-18 Graduate Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Academic Policies



Academic Honor Code

All students are expected to accept and to abide by the values of honesty, integrity, and truthfulness in their academic pursuits. Sanctions for violations of academic honesty, such as plagiarism or cheating may include (but are not limited to) failure for the work involved, failure in the course, and dismissal from the University. A record of violations and sanctions is maintained in the student’s file. Appeal is to the provost or the provost’s designee.

Academic Conduct

Students are expected to interact with faculty and fellow students with courtesy, respect, and integrity in all academic settings. Any behavior that disrupts an appropriate and effective learning environment is unacceptable and may be subject to discipline. Student behaviors that enhance the learning environment include dialogue and discussion of course material and issues; asking questions to improve comprehension; listening to and respecting the views of others; and completing readings and assignments in preparation for class. Student behaviors that hinder the learning environment include extended personal discussions during class; the use of cell phones, and the inappropriate use of laptops or other devices during class; consistently interrupting class by entering and exiting the room during the class session; and treating classmates or the instructor with disrespect. In all academic settings, students should be aware of their responsibility to engage in the material being covered in order to benefit from educational opportunities. Moreover, students must be certain that their presence enhances rather than hinders the educational environment of fellow students.

Intellectual Property

The University expects all members of its community to respect the property of others and to be aware of intellectual laws, regulations and policies that apply to the electronic environment. No member of the University community shall use another’s material or property in a way that violates copyright law or infringes on the rights held by others. In particular, the unauthorized duplication or use of software that is licensed or protected by copyright is theft.

Members of the University community should recognize that placing their work in the electronic public domain may result in widespread distribution of their work and could jeopardize their rights to that work. One should assume that works communicated through the network are subject to copyright unless there is a specific disclaimer to the contrary.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism occurs when a person uses someone else’s creative or scholarly work but fails to give that person credit. It also occurs when a person credits the author but uses his exact words without so indicating with quotation marks or block indentations; or when a person uses words so close to those in the source, that if the person placed his/her work next to the source, one would see that it could not have been written without the source “at the elbow.” The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Paper (2009) refers to plagiarism as “intellectual theft” and suggests penalties for infractions ranging from failure of the course to expulsion from school.

The widespread availability of online sources for research and information requires particular attention to proper use and citation of electronic sources. Students seeking guidance in the use of proper citations should consult the “MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers” (7th Edition, 2009), “A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations,” by Kate L. Turabian,et al (8th Edition, 2013), or “Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association” (6th Edition, 2010). Be sure to check with your instructor regarding the preferred style of citation.

Confidentiality of Student Information

Procedures for the release and disclosure of student records maintained by the University are in accordance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (FERPA). Where the law is silent, the University is guided by the principles that the privacy of an individual is of great importance and that as much information as possible in a student’s file should be disclosed to the student upon request. University officials may have access to student information when access is necessary for legitimate educational interests such as appropriate advising relating to the student’s academic or campus life. Third parties have access to personally identifiable student records or information only with the student’s written consent or as otherwise provided by FERPA. Parents and guardians are considered third parties who need a written release signed by the student to gain access to student records (Parental Release form). Detailed guidelines for release and disclosure of information are available from the Office of the Registrar. These guidelines comply with FERPA and the Students’ Right to Know/Campus Security Act of 1990. Required graduate student theses and other papers authored by students may be made available by the University for the research purposes of third parties with the student’s permission.

Credit Hour

Federal regulation defines a credit hour as an amount of work represented in intended learning outcomes and verified by evidence of student achievement that is an institutional established equivalence that  reasonably approximates not less than: (1) One hour of classroom or direct faculty instruction and a minimum of two hours of out of class student work each week for approximately fifteen weeks for one semester or trimester hour of credit, or ten to twelve weeks for one quarter hour of credit, or the equivalent amount of work over a different amount of time; or (2) At least an equivalent amount of work as required in paragraph (1) of this definition for other academic activities as established by the institution including laboratory work, internships, practica, studio work, and other academic work leading to the award of credit hours.  (CIHE Policy 111.  See also Standards for Accreditation 4.34.)

Class Attendance

For on-campus and online interactive courses, class participation is considered an essential part of the educational experience. Students are expected to attend all classes as well as fully participate in online courses and be responsible for course content. Faculty members may establish attendance policies for their courses which define expectations for attendance and participation. These policies may be found on the course syllabus.

Administrative Withdrawal

It is the responsibility of the student to notify the University of an intention to withdraw from a course or withdraw from the University.

Habitual non-attendance of a course or courses will be considered academic misconduct subject to withdrawal from the course(s) not attended. Habitual nonattendance is defined as a consecutive absence in any course or lack of participation in discussion in an online course equating to three full weeks of missed class sessions (three absences for a course meeting once a week, six absences for a course meeting twice a week, nine absences for a course meeting three times a week, one day for a course meeting two weekends.)

Habitual non-attendance in one or more classes may result in administrative withdrawal from the class or classes affected. Moreover, when a student is habitually absent from most or all classes, the student may be subject to administrative withdrawal from the University or, in cases with extenuating circumstances, to an administrative leave of absence. In such cases a grade of W will be assigned to the classes affected according to the appropriate date published in the academic calendar.

Students should note that faculty members may have more stringent attendance policies and standards for participation for their courses, as noted on the course syllabus.

Students who have attended no class sessions of a course or courses for which they are registered by the end of the drop/add period (first seven days of a graduate course) will be withdrawn from the course(s) unless they have communicated with their instructor. If a student never attended any courses during the drop/add period, the student will be withdrawn from his/her full schedule of courses.  Financial charges may be incurred by the student.

Matriculation and Enrollment

Matriculated/Non-Matriculated Students

A matriculated student has been formally admitted to the University in pursuit of a degree program and is proceeding on a full-time or part-time basis. A non-matriculated student enrolled in course work who has not yet applied to the University is not enrolled in a degree program. Non-matriculated students may not enroll for more than two courses (6 credits), unless specific permission is granted. There is no guarantee that course work completed as a non-matriculated student will be applied toward a degree program. Non-matriculated students may register for courses when space is available.

Full-time/Part-time Status

Students may pursue graduate degrees on either a full-time or part-time basis. Full-time graduate students take at least three and no more than four courses in the Fall or Spring semesters (nine to twelve credits) in a degree program each semester; half-time students take six credits. Students employed full-time are advised to register for no more than two courses (six credits) each semester. Students are also advised to register for no more than one course each summer session. Full-time status during the summer session is six credits; while half-time status is three credits. All graduate courses are three credits unless otherwise noted.

Course Numbers

Graduate level courses have numbers of 500 and above. Courses numbered 600 and above are limited to doctoral or CAGS students.

Registration Policies and Procedures

All students must register for courses to maintain enrollment at the University. Students are responsible for adhering to the registration instructions, timetable and other information published online. Students must satisfy all financial obligations before they are permitted to register and attend classes.

Student Responsibility

It is the responsibility of the student to review the requirements for their degree program and select appropriate coursework. Students easily monitor their progress by consulting the  Academic Evaluation and by consulting the graduate catalog for program requirements.

Academic Calendar

Salve Regina’s academic year includes a fall and spring semester and two summer sessions. Meetings for graduate courses follow the University calendar. Calendar information may be found in the on the salve website.

Off-Campus Classes

At times, the University may offer off-campus graduate courses at other locations throughout Rhode Island. Consult the schedule of classes on the University’s website.

Change of Name/Address

It is the student’s responsibility to complete a change of name/address form in the Office of the Registrar whenever such a change occurs.

Registration Holds

In order to register each semester, all students must have clearance from the Business Office, Office of Financial Aid, and the Office of the Registrar.

Registration

Matriculated students may register online through Web Advisor for Students in the Salve Regina University Portal. The link is titled “Search and Register for Classes.” All students may find registration instructions and materials on http://www.salve.edu/graduate-studies/register-classes. Students may also register for all on-campus and online courses in person at the Office of the Registrar located in Ochre Court. Office hours are 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday.

Registration Period for Online Courses

Online interactive courses may have two seven-week sessions in each semester with specific start and end dates. Check the most current course schedule for dates. Registration for seven-week online interactive courses after the start date requires the permission of the instructor.

Add/Drop Period

Graduate students may drop and add full-semester courses without academic consequence during the first seven days of a course.  The option to add a course includes only those courses where space is still available during the drop/add period.  Students will need instructor permission to add compressed, seven-week courses. If students are only dropping a course without adding there are financial penalties.  Please refer to our refund policy.  It is important for students to verify any financial aid consequences when changing their schedules.  Please refer to the Financial Information  for current information. 

If a student has not officially dropped a course or received an approved course withdrawal by the completion date of the semester, the instructor must submit a final grade for the student. 

Course Changes

Refunds of tuition are calculated on a pro-rated basis. If a student does not officially drop or withdraw from a course by the last date to withdraw noted in the Academic calendar, a final grade will be given.

Non-credit Registration

Students in good academic standing may audit courses (based on seat availability) and receive an AU (no credit) on their transcript. They must complete all course requirements except exams. Tuition for audited courses is listed on the graduate studies website. Students may not change registration from credit to audit or audit to credit after the end of the first week of class. Note: Self-paced courses are not available for audit.

Prerequisites

A prerequisite is a course or other requirement established to ensure that students have sufficient academic preparation to successfully complete another course. It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that prerequisites, as listed in the catalog and updated through the semester schedule of classes, have been successfully completed before registering for the course.

Special Enrollment Sections

Matriculated students who want to pursue graduate level independent study, directed study, thesis, or internship courses for credit need to discuss proposed work with the instructor and program director. If the proposal is approved, a special enrollment form (located on http://www.salve.edu/registrar/online-forms ) must be completed, signed and approved following the instructions available on the form, and then sent to the Office of the Registrar in Ochre Court.

Directed Study

Directed study involves regular graduate catalog courses offered to individual students who are unable to complete them because of conflicts or extenuating circumstances. Students should consult the appropriate graduate program director and complete and submit a special enrollment form to the Office of the Registrar. If the student is not required to take the course to fulfill graduate requirements, or can defer taking the course as a classroom or online experience to a later semester, the directed study may not be approved. Please see more information about guidelines and appropriate forms located online on the Office of the Registrar’s web page.

Independent Study

Independent study involves specialized subjects outside the regular graduate catalog. While it is expected that most students will be able to develop a complete program of study from regularly scheduled course offerings, there are situations in which a student may benefit from independent study. Students interested in independent study, and who have a cumulative GPA of 3.2 or higher, should consult an appropriate faculty mentor, discuss the planned project, complete and submit a special enrollment form available on http://www.salve.edu/registrar/online-forms, and register for the course. The University reserves the right to deny requests for independent study from students whose topics have not been well formulated, who lack a supervising faculty member to evaluate performance, or who do not meet the GPA minimum.

Internship

An internship is a short-term employment experience that is related to a student’s course of study, supervised by a practicing professional, and structured academically by a Salve Regina University faculty member. For those students who are employed, the internship must be performed in a setting outside of their usual work role, and with a different supervisor. Although the specific nature of the experiential learning varies with the student’s academic interest, there should be a close relationship between the program of study and the internship. The internship is a supervised learning experience for academic credit typically consisting of a minimum of 120 hours (40 hours per credit awarded) of on-the-job experience and culminating in a significant written graduate-level analysis that integrates the field experience with relevant literature in the student’s program of study and includes a formal bibliography. Students interested in completing an internship for credit should discuss the option with their graduate program director. A graduate internship form, available on the Office of the Registrar website, must be completed in order to register for an internship for credit. In order to comply with federal regulations, students must complete the work during the semester in which they are registered for the internship, and may not earn credit for work completed prior to submitting a completed signed graduate internship form. It is the student’s responsibility to meet any requirements imposed by the internship site including, but not limited to, insurance coverage, fingerprinting, background check, and minimum required hours.

Thesis Option

In some programs, students may decide to write a six-credit thesis under appropriate faculty direction and with the permission of the graduate program director. Details are established prior to registration and in consultation with the thesis supervisor and the program director.

Withdrawal from a Course

Students who withdraw from a course before the last day to withdraw from a course with a grade of “W” must make this request in writing. Permission to withdraw from a course must be obtained from the instructor and submitted to the Office of the Registrar prior to the withdrawal deadline.  Students can do so by submitting a course withdrawal form (found on salve.edu/registrar/online-forms), or by sending an email from the student’s salve email address.  The deadline to withdraw from a course is published in the University’s Academic Calendar.  If a student stops attending a course at any time without withdrawing, the final grade will be the grade the student has earned in the course.  The Office of the Registrar must receive all withdrawal requests by the final day to withdraw from a course.  Please refer to the “Financial Information ” section of this catalog for details on tuition refunds.  Refunds apply to tuition only; fees are non-refundable. 

Time Limitations

Master’s degree work must be completed within five years of matriculation and doctoral work must be completed within seven years of the comprehensive examination.

Leave of Absence

Students, who know they will be unable to take courses for more than two consecutive semesters for either medical or non-medical reasons, must request a leave of absence in order to remain active. Students must submit a request for a leave of absence in writing to the Office of Graduate Studies and Continuing Education.

Withdrawal from the University

Students who wish to withdraw from the University during a semester or at the end of a semester must do so through the Office of the Registrar.  An official withdrawal form is required, available in the Office of the Registrar or you can notify the Office of the Registrar by emailing sruregistrar@salve.edu.  The University will initiate a student’s withdrawal when the student has not registered for the next semester, not including summer sessions.  Students who receive Financial Aid must arrange for an exit interview with the Office of Financial Aid.  Please refer to the “Financial Information ” section of this catalog for details on tuition refunds.  It is important that students who wish to withdraw submit their request as soon as the decision is made.  The date of an official withdrawal determines the amount of pro-rated tuition.  Financial Aid awards are adjusted according to the date of the student withdrawal. 

Transcripts

Transcripts are released following a written student request and payment of the appropriate fee or when mandated by law. Transcripts are available in the Office of the Registrar.  Transfer request forms are available online on the Office of the Registrar’s web page.  Transcript services may be denied to students who have outstanding financial obligations to the University.

To obtain copies of transcripts and source documents such as test scores from other institutions, students must contact the originators of those records, for example the registrar of the original institution. Salve Regina University does not copy transcripts of other schools for student use.

Online Studies

Salve Regina University provides alternative and convenient course formats to support the needs of our students who have busy professional and personal lives. Salve Regina University has been providing master’s programs by extension since 1985. Salve Regina offers a Master of Business Administration, a Master of Arts in International Relations, Master of Arts in Humanities, a Master of Science in Administration of Justice and Homeland Security, Master of Science in Health care Administration and Management and Master of Science in Innovation and Strategic Management, plus several professional certificates, completely online.

Online Course Structure

All online courses are accessed through the Internet. Once students register for a course, they are notified of their user name and password. Online courses are offered in two formats: online interactive and hybrid.

Online interactive courses have specific start and end dates and are offered in two seven-week sessions each semester. In these courses, students interact with other students and have the ability to participate in discussions with classmates and faculty. Communication is asynchronous; there is no requirement for members of the class to be online at the same time, although some courses offer opportunities for synchronous interaction. This interactive environment enriches course content, provides opportunity for discussion, and encourages the exchange of ideas.

Hybrid courses blend classroom learning and online learning. Since much of the course content and some activities are moved online, the number of class meetings over the course of a term or semester is reduced. It is very important to check the schedule of classes for starting dates, as some courses begin online before meeting in the classroom, while others have an initial class meeting and then continue online.

Textbooks for online courses are available from the Salve Regina University bookstore. Textbooks should be ordered before the course begins to ensure adequate preparation for the first day of class.

Students unable to complete course work within the scheduled time should carefully read the guidelines for the incomplete process and the course withdrawal process in the “Academic Policies” section of this catalog.

Computer Requirements for Online Courses

Online courses are delivered via the Internet using course management software. Students must use a supported Web browser to access the Internet and courses. For more information, visit our website at Online Course Information  for the most current and updated technical assistance.

The campus uses Microsoft Office. All written papers need to be saved in a file format compatible with Microsoft Word. Some business courses require spreadsheet software for their assignments. Students will need to save their assignments in a format compatible with Microsoft Excel. Additionally, some courses may require plug-ins to access course material. The website above also lists links to the most common plug-ins needed.

Graduation Policies and Procedures

Graduation Requirements

To qualify for graduation, candidates must be fully matriculated in their respective graduate programs and complete all requirements in which at least 60% must have been completed at Salve Regina University with a minimum cumulative grade point average of 3.0.

Graduation Procedures

Candidates intending to graduate must submit a completed Application to Graduate to the Office of the Registrar six months prior to the graduation date noted on the Application to Graduate. All program requirements must be complete before conferral of the degree and participation in Commencement ceremonies. Any balance on the student’s account must be paid in full in order to participate in commencement. Where applicable, the following documents also must be on file prior to graduation:

  • Official transcripts validating any transfer credit to be applied toward the degree
  • Evidence of an exit interview with the director of financial aid

Appearance of a student’s name in the Commencement program is presumptive evidence of graduation, but is not regarded as conclusive. The official Salve Regina University transcript is conclusive testimony of the student’s academic records and possession of degree(s) awarded by this institution.

Grading Policy

Student grades in graduate level courses are reported as follows with the accompanying quality point values:

Grade Grade Point Value Numerical Equivalent
A         Excellent 4.00                                 95-100
A- 3.70 90-94
B+ 3.30 87-89
B          Above Average 3.00 84-86
B- 2.70                                       80-83
C+ 2.30 77-79
C          Average 2.00                                   74-76
F           Failure 0.00                                 Below 74
P           Pass Pass  
WF: 0.00 0.00
I: Incomplete: Given when a course requirement has not been completed. Must be resolved by date on the incomplete form or I becomes F.  Incompletes may not extend beyond the last day of the following semester.
W Withdrawal from a course with permission. No credit is awarded.  See Academic Calendar for last date to withdraw from a course with a grade of “W.”
AU: Audit: Student fulfills all course requirements other than taking exams. No credit is awarded.
W Withdrawal: Course dropped with permission. Students may not withdraw after the last class meeting. No credit is awarded.
WF:

Withdrawal from a course without permission or after the date designated in the academic calendar for withdrawal without penalty. Also given to a student for behavioral or academic reasons prior to the recording of the final grade. No credit is earned and is computed as “F” in the grade point average.

Incompletes

It is very important for students to complete all assigned course requirements by the scheduled end date of their courses. When students decide they are unable to do so, it is equally important that they follow the procedure for requesting an incomplete grade. Before the scheduled end date of the course, students must request an incomplete grade from their instructor. If the request is approved, the student and instructor will complete the official form and submit it directly to the Office of the Registrar. Official forms are located online.  Incomplete grades are neutral - they have no effect on the GPA. However, it is crucial for the student to finish the work by the completion date indicated on the form; otherwise the incomplete will become an F. Students are only granted one incomplete per course.

Students may not withdraw from a course once an incomplete has been granted. The completion deadline may not extend beyond the last day of the following semester for all courses, except self-paced courses. Incomplete deadlines for self-paced courses should not extend beyond two months after the completion of the initial four-month period.

Final Examinations

University policy requires all classes to meet with their instructors during the final exam period, whether for an examination or for further instruction, and faculty may penalize students for failure to attend the final examination period. Final exams take place during final week each semester, as indicated in the academic calendar. Details are available online on the Salve website.

Online Grade Reports

Students obtain semester grades online by accessing the Salve Regina University portal using the Web Advisor for Students menu.  The University does not mail semester grade reports. Those who need printable copies can obtain them quickly and easily online whenever they access their grades on Web Advisor for Students. Grade reports may be denied to students with outstanding financial obligations. In such cases, however, students still have the right to view their grades in a visit to the Office of the Registrar.

Falsifying Educational Records

Tampering with education records such as transcripts, grade reports, and diplomas is against the law. Among criminal offenses of the State of Rhode Island is Chapter 58 of Title 11, which states in part, “A person shall not use, offer, or present as genuine a false, forged, counterfeited, or altered transcript, diplomas, or grade report of a postsecondary educational institution.” This section is but one example of state and federal laws making it illegal to engage in fraudulent activity with education records. Penalties for violating such laws can include substantial fines and/or imprisonment.

Grade Review - Resolving Questions

All requests for a review of a semester grade must address the process followed in calculating the final grade and not the instructor’s evaluation of the student’s work. Students must first attempt to resolve their questions informally with the instructor. If no resolution is achieved, students who wish to pursue a formal grade review need to adhere to the following process and schedule:

  1. A request for a review of a semester grade must be made in writing by the student to the course instructor no later than 30 days after the date semester grades become available to students online at “My Salve.” The student sends a copy of this request to the director of the program which offered the course and to the appropriate dean.
  2. Within 10 working days of the receipt of this request, the instructor shall forward to the student, the graduate program director, and the dean of academics a written grade review. The grade review will consist of:
    1. A copy of the course syllabus outlining assignments, tests and examinations, along with their respective percentage weights to the final grade calculation;
    2. The student’s grades for all tests and assignments;
    3. A demonstration of the calculations by which the final grade was determined.

A student who finds the review unsatisfactory (i.e., there are still questions remaining regarding the calculation) may present the case to the graduate program director in which the course was offered within 10 working days of the receipt of the review or, if the instructor is also the program director, directly to the provost. The program director or provost will have 10 working days in which to respond. If necessary, a final appeal may be made to the provost within 10 working days of the program director’s response, and the provost will have 10 working days in which to determine the matter. The provost’s decision in the matter will be final.

Cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA)

The cumulative grade point average is the weighted average of all grades and credits used to indicate academic progress. The cumulative GPA is computed by multiplying the quality point value of the grade by the number of credits attached to each course, adding this number for all courses taken, and dividing the sum by the total number of quality credits. Note: Grades of P, I, AU, and W are not computed in the grade point average.

Course Repeat Policy

Graduate courses may be repeated, with the lower grade excluded from the GPA, and duplicate credits excluded from the cumulative total. All grades earned, however, will remain on the student’s transcript. Students earning a grade lower than a B- in a required course must repeat that course at Salve Regina University. Students may repeat a required course once. No more than three required courses may be repeated throughout a student’s program.

Academic Probation and Dismissal

A cumulative grade point average of B (3.0) is required to qualify for a graduate degree or certificate. Students whose cumulative grade point average falls below 3.0 in any given semester or who earn at least one grade of “F” are considered to be on academic probation for the following semester. Students on probation for two continuous semesters may be dismissed from the University. Students will receive a written notice of this decision, including a process for appeal.  Students who are dismissed may make a written appeal to the provost following the process specified on the dismissal notice.

If readmission is granted, a student will be re-enrolled on academic probation and will be informed of specific academic criteria and expectations in writing.  Students reinstated by appeal may not, if dismissed again in subsequent semesters, submit any further appeals for readmission.

International students studying on a nonimmigrant visa should consult with the appropriate designated school official to review visa status issues and alternatives.

Institutional Review Board (SRU-IRB)

The United States Department of Health and Human Services, through the Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP), is the U.S. institution responsible for regulating research involving human and animal subjects. The purpose of the regulation is to ensure the ethical treatment of both humans and animals participating in research as subjects. OHRP provides assurance regulations to guarantee that research subjects are not submitted to unnecessary or undue physical, mental and legal risks, that their participation in research is informed and un-coerced, and that their participation will contribute to promoting beneficial generalized knowledge. OHRP carries out its responsibilities through the publication of documentation with federal regulations regarding the ethical treatment of human and animal subjects. OHRP enforces its ethical regulations through the establishment of an Institutional Review Board (IRB) in all institutional locations where research takes place and are directly or indirectly funded by the U.S. Federal government.

Salve Regina’s mission reflects Federal regulation for the ethical treatment of humans and animals. The SRU-IRB is registered with OHRP and reviews, approves, modifies or disapproves all research projects undertaken by faculty, staff and students at Salve Regina University or when faculty, staff, and students are participating in research. In complying with federal regulations, the SRU-IRB review process of research makes sure that:

  1. Risks to subjects are minimized;
  2. Risks to subjects are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits;
  3. Selection of subjects is equitable;
  4. Informed consent is sought from each prospective participant or legally authorized representative, and properly documented;
  5. Adequate preparation is taken to protect the privacy and confidentiality of subjects; and
  6. Adequate provisions are made for the ongoing monitoring of the subjects’ welfare.

The SRU-IRB is the only University committee authorized to determine if a specific research is reviewable or not and all faculty, staff and students must contact the SRU-IRB for input when contemplating undertaking research.